|New York Times Gazetesinde Çıkan Yazısı|
ISTANBUL, Turkey, Nov. 10- Kemal Ataturk, President and creator of modern Turkey, died today at Dolma Baghche Palace at the age of 58. He had survived thirteen wounds received in battle and a number of assassination attempts, but succumbed to cirrhosis of the liver.
It is expected that General Ismet Inonu, former Premier and President Ataturks comrade-in-arms, will be chosen tomorrow morning by the Republican Peoples party to succeed the dictator-soldier, hero of the reborn nation.
The bulletin announcing the death of Ataturk and
signed by eight doctors read:
Premier Stays at Bedside
Later, however, the authorities requested the withdrawal
of flags except those on government buildings. Although the flags
at half staff the appearance of so much color gave the impression
that Istanbul was on fete. All places of public entertainment were
closed and no intoxicants will be sold in Turkey until further notice.
By Ataturks death Turkey has lost her great creator, a nation its great Chief and humanity a great son. We offer our people deepest condolences in their great loss. Our only consolation in our affliction is our attachment to his great work and our service to our dear country. We declare that before all things his immortal work is the Turkish Republic.
Your government is at its post at this grave time through which we are passing. The great Turkish nation will, without doubt, work as one body with the government to preserve order.
In accordance with the Consti- (continued on page eighteen) tution Abdullah Haik Renda, president of the Kamutay [National Assembly] has assumed the interim Presidency of the republic and the Kamutay will proceed forthwith with the election of a new President of the republic. The government, the glorious Turkish Army with all its might and the whole people, which form an unshakable entity, will gather around whoever is elected to fulfill the highest office in Turkey and to maintain her greatness.
Ataturk, whom we mourn today and always, had the confidence of the Turkish people. The continuation of his work he bequeathed to the Turkish nation. The Turkish people, which is eternal, will make it live eternally. Turkish youth will always defend the Turkish republic, its precious legacy, and will march alone the path Ataturk traced. Kemal Ataturk will live always.
Beside General Inonu, Marshal Fevzi Cakmak, Chief of Staff, and Mr. Okyar also are in the running for the Presidency.
The Marshal, as Chief of Staff, holds a position of great authority in the new Turkey and he is universally respected as the father of the army. However, he is essentially a soldier and he is known to be reluctant to play a political role. It is said that before President Ataturk became seriously ill he asked the Marshal whether he would stand for the Presidency if Ataturk resigned. The suggestion was declined.
Mr. Okyar, once Prime Minister of Turkey and lately Ambassador to London and an experienced diplomat, has been Ataturks most intimate friend. Since the suppression in 1930 of the short-lived Liberal party, of which he was a leader, he never joined the Republican Peoples party and it seems unlikely that the Kamutay, composed almost entirely of adherents of the party the principals of which were lately embodied in the Constitution, would elect a non-party man President.
Moreover, neither Marshal Chakmak nor Mr. Okyar is
a member of the Kamutay, from which a president is elected.
Inonu Is Likely Choice
Ever since it was agreed between them that in the interest of the country the partnership should be dissolved, the general deliberately kept in the background, but the Turkish people, with the possible exception of a few private enemies, continued to regard him as the natural successor to his former chief.
Even if none of three is elected to the Presidency
and the Kamutay decides to choose another who has not played a prominent
part in the life of the republic, the loyal cooperation that is now
manifesting itself between Marshal Chakmak, Mr. Okyar and General
Inonu, toward Jelal Bayar, the present Prime Minister, should be sufficient
to guarantee a peaceful transition to the new era.
Change in Policy Unlikely
No one expected Turkeys new leadership to turn in the immediate future from the domestic and foreign balance that Ataturk achieved for his nation, strategically situated between the East and the West.
Before Ataturk became gravely ill in mid-October he was borrowing money for Turkey with little discrimination from both Britain and Germany, although his early struggle for power was tinged with bitter hatred for the influence of both.
The British and German Foreign Offices were known to have keen interest in his successor and the future course of Turkey.
Ataturk, a Military Hero, Formed surging Nation
He was called simply Mustafa when he was born in Salonika in 1880, the son of a Turkish customs officer. His mathematics teacher at military preparatory school added Kemal, meaning rightness, to his name.
When he fought his way to leadership of the Turks, the title of Pasha was added. Most of his historic record was made as Mustafa Kemal Pasha.
In 1934, when he had so modernized Turkey that titles were abolished and he was able to decree that all Turks must thereafter have family names, he chose for himself the family name of Ataturk, which is translated as Chief Turk or Father of All Turks. Thenceforth he was known as Kemal Ataturk.
His death comes as a blow to a nation of 14,000,000 people, although he reformed their social customs, their religion and their economics with dictatorial zeal and speed.
Out of the remains of the defeated and dismembered Ottoman Empire, he formed in 1923 a republic, which he armed and industrialized and made into a powerful nation. He repossessed the Dardanelles in 1936, conciliated the Greeks and steered a course between East and West in a manner that made Soviet Russia, Britain and Germany in turn glad to cultivate Turkeys friendship and lend her millions of further development.
Women Admitted to Parliament
In another phase of reform, he stripped Mohammedan priests of their privileges and made Sunday instead of Friday the day of rest to conform with western usage. He devoted himself to the development of an army and navy with which to assure the Turkish position in dealing with the Western powers. By this year he had a modernized army of almost 500,000 men and was spending $70,000,000 of Turkeys annual budget of $210,000,000 to expand the national defense . He announced a five-year plan intended to bring Turkeys air force up to 1,000 of the latest military planes. He ordered twenty-five submarines and planned to equip
Turkey to manufacture arms and war materials within her own boundaries.
Turkeys control of the Dardanelles had already made her one of the most important powers in the Mediterranean, and she was prepared to defend her position instead of being a pawn of stronger European nations as in the past.
The President declared his belief and assembled his troops. The powers interested in the Straits convention said it was a grave move, but a hurriedly summoned conference in 1936 at Montreux, Switzerland, gave Turkey the Straits once more.
Ataturk was instrumental in the formation of the Balkan Entente, with Turkey, Greece, Romania and Yugoslavia, and thereafter in 1937 he formed the Moslem, or Middle-East bloc, with Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan.
Early in 1937 Ataturk grew impatient with long-drawn-out negotiations with France over the Syrian mandate, which France was about to relinquish by recognizing Syria as a republic. The Turks wanted Alexandretta, containing Antioch and an important corner of the Eastern Mediterranian shore leading to the Mosul oil fields.
The Turks had their way. Alexandretta was made an autonomous State last July, under Franco-Turkish administration and defense forces, with the understanding that the French would eventually withdraw, leaving it to the Turks.
Policy Based on Expediency
Russia was the first to help Turkey to power. In the post-war settlement the Soviet opposed in vain the partition of Turkey. And when Kemal, not yet Ataturk, later undertook to drive out the Allies Russia supplied arms, materials and funds that contributed greatly to the final crushing of the Greeks in 1922.
The Soviet thereafter enjoyed a position of preferred
friendship in Turkey, but this cooled about ten years later when it
became evident that the Turkish dictator was willing to have other friends
Germany, meanwhile, was courting Turkey. So was Italy, Ataturk could not readily forget, however, that the downfall of the Ottoman empire had resulted from siding with Germany in the World War and that Turkey had been among the Entente powers that Italy had deserted to side with the Allies.
Germany came bearing gifts, however. She offered a commercial treaty. And she offered a huge credits under which she would undertake to construct docks for Turkey along the Bosporus, deliver a fleet of coastwise steamers and build a variety of factories. Ataturk announced a five-year plan of industrialization.
Moreover, as the Czechoslovak crisis developed he suffered disillusionment in his belief that Britain was the strongest power in the world. Turkey concluded a commercial treaty with Germany, accepted a loan of 150,000,000 marks and proceeded to become Germanys greatest foreign market. She is currently buying goods and services from Germany at a yearly rate of about $130,000,000, while selling to Germany at a yearly rate of $80,000,000.
It became evident to the world that Ataturk had brought Turkey to the receiving end of several competing international axes and to the profit position in the adjoining nationality blocs.
Scorned Doctors Advice
Although he was stern and strict in his official life, he was known to be convivial and carefree in his social life. He frequently danced and drank all night, or played poker (with great success) all night, smoking incessantly the while. Then he slept twenty-four hours without interruption.
A French liver specialist ordered a complete rest for him early this year, but he disdained it. His people heard of this and raised such a clamor that Turkey bought him a luxurious yacht from Richard M. Cadwaladen an American. It had gold-plated bathroom fitting and gold door knobs. On it he caught a chill last summer while entertaining King Carol of Rumania. He never completely recovered.
Almost to the day of death Ataturk struggled to disestablish the ancient methods of Turkish thought. When the medical profession of Turkey, which he had reorganized on modern scientific lines, wished to express appreciation of what he had done for public health, the best medical thought decided to present a solid gold bath-tub, eight feet long, five feet wide and four feet deep.
The best Turkish doctors thought it was the only thing
fitted for the Ghazithe Conqueror. Ataturk ordered it melted down and
the proceeds expended on bettering the public health.
Had a Food Taster
Mohamme ds duty was to taste well of all food and drink intended for Ataturk. Thereafter the meal was kept in a hot table for an hour. If Mohammed did not die by that time the dictator ate and drank.
Ataturk presided over a republic about as large as California and New Mexico combined. Although he rose to power because of his military ability, a career for which his early education destined him, his post-war activities were those of a progressive and energetic administrator.
Emil Ludwig, the German biographer once called him a man compared with whom Napoleon was half a dreamer. An outstanding fact about the dictators extraordinary career was his consistency and his patience, his courage and his silence. It was he who won the peace of Lausanne--the first time for 200 years that old
Asia achieved a victory over Europe.
Having in his command 20,000 war-worn soldiers, he entered upon the conflict with the great powers of Europe, and then, for four whole years, surrounded by foes without and within, waited until he had overthrown the Sultan, abolished the Caliphate, set free the essential part of Turkey from the ruins of the old empire, saved it and reestablished it as a republic. By these achievements he proved himself a great military leader and statesman.
The Presidents moustache and fez, prominent features
in his portraits at the time when he rose to power, were given up after
he had established himself. His medium sized, slight figure was clad
in elegant civil dress. His hair was bright and blond. His furrowed
countenance indicated what he had gone through. He lived, as the first
citizen of his country, in a villa situated among the hills outside
the new capital that he had founded. He had built it in that Turkish
style that dates from the period when French tastes prevailed. Almost
unguarded its doors were left open in true Oriental fashion.
Dates in His Career
On Sept. 4 he was elected chairman of a second congress at Sivas, which resolved to fight for Turkish integrity. In October national elections were forced by him, and these resulted in the defeat of the Sultans government. British troops, in March, 1920, took possession of Constantinople, now Istanbul, and in April he was outlawed and condemned to death by the Sultan.
Shortly afterward the Turkish National Assembly met, elected the Ghazi President and adopted the national pact, the Magna Charta of New Turkey. In May the Sultan sent a Caliphs army toward Angora to destroy the nationalist forces. This army was driven back into Constantinople by the Ghazi.
When the Greeks began their invasion of Asiatic Turkey
in June, 1920, he organized an army of defense. On Aug. 10 the Treaty
of Sevres partitioned the Ottoman Empire and divided it among the European
On Nov.1, 1922, the Ghazi abolished the Sultanate, and on Nov. 17 the Sultan fled from Turkey on a British warship. Three days later the peace conference opened at Lausanne. Ably represented and supported by his brilliant colleague Ismet Pasha, the Ghazi won his great diplomatic victory and on Oct.29, 1923, was elected first President of the Turkish Republic.
Ataturk was born when Abdul Hamid II was Sultan. He
was an only son and he was intended by his mother for the mosque school,
but he became fascinated by the uniforms of the army officers and was
sent to the military preparatory school at Salonika.
Plotted Against Sultan
When his secret activities were again discovered, he flew to Akaba and stayed for a while in Syria. He obtained a transfer to the Third Armys staff at Salonika, merged the Society of Liberty into the Society of Progress and entrenched his forces in Salonika, Monastir and Uskup. The revolution of the Young Turks in 1908 failed, but the Sultan lost his absolute regime in the counter-revolution of 1909. A quarrel between Kemal and Enver Pasha, whose rule succeeded that of Abdul Hamid, followed, and Kemal withdrew from politics in bitter disillusionment.
During the following years he led the life of the average Turkish army officer. He was exiled by Enver to Tripoli, returned to Salonika, was transferred to Albania, and again sent to Salonika. Hated by Enver, he was military attaché at Sofia, Bulgaria, when Turkey joined Germany in 1914 in a last desperate gamble for the life of the empire. Kemal, convinced from the first that the empire was in no condition to enter the war, received command of the Nineteenth Division and was dispatched to the Dardanelles. He soon commanded all the Turco-German forces on the peninsula, and his success in throwing back the British before Anaforta was the most brilliant achievement of his military career.
This victory made him a great hero in Germany, but it was not until its story was told in the Committee Year Book for 1917 that Enver permitted it to leak out in Constantinople. Two years later the Turkish papers began printing the story of Anaforta, and Enver caused the entire issues to be confiscated. By that time it had become politically dangerous to mention Kemals name in the capital.
Alarmed at Kemals popularity, Liman von Sanders, the
German generalissimo, transferred him to the Russian front after the
British had evacuated the Dardanelles. He was appointed major general,
in command of the Sixteenth Army, but he came into conflict with Falkenhayn,
threw up his command in protest, and returned to Aleppo, where he dispatched
to Enver a remarkable statement, outlining the entire political situation
at a moment when a German victory was expected. Pointing out Falkenhayns
position, he warned: We shall lose our own country and Falkenhayn will
sacrifice every ounce of gold and every soldier he can squeeze out of
Exiled to Germany
It was figuratively the end of the world for Kemal. He returned to Constantinople, which had fallen into disorder. The members of his revolutionary committee had fled, and Damad Ferid Pasha was to succeed Talaat and Enver. Turkey was virtually surrounded by her enemies, the Allies forming an iron ring around the remnants of the old empire. Under the terms of the Mudros armistice, the Turkish Navy was interned at Constantinople and the army disarmed. With the Allies in occupation of the capital, Kemal knew that further attempts were useless. He fled to Asia Minor. When he ignored Ferids demand to return, the latter dismissed him from the army.
In the following struggle between Kemal and Ferid, Kemal was the final victor. The Anglo-Hellenic rapprochement sent whole provinces in Asia Minor scurrying to Kemal, with the result that this part was lost to Ferid. With the Greek occupation of Smyrna in 1919, which led Kemal to tear up Mudros armistice, the star of the Ghazi began to rise, and,after his strategic victories, reached its climax with his diplomatic victory at Lausanne and his election as first President of the Turkish Republic.
Kemal Ataturk, the most terrible of all the terrible Turks, as he was termed by Earl Balfour, who described him as a brigand, was always a man who insisted on having his own ideas accepted.
The new Turkey got rid of her Sultans in 1922 but she did not then dare abolish the Caliphate. The abolition of the Caliphate was the first step of importance in the life of the new republic. The next was the reform of the laws. This was achieved in the space of only a few weeks. The Swiss Civil Code was almost literally translated, and the best points of the Italian Penal Code were accepted. Thus the Ghazi, by imposing his will upon the nation, had altered within three months the entire judiciary.
He ordered the first census ever to be held on Turkish
territory. Although this was not a reform in itself, it led to reforms
of vast importance which gave the country and the world a definite idea
of Turkeys importance in Near Eastern affairs. The President also made
the Turkish language obligatory as the official language, and ordered
that it be written in Roman instead of Arabic characters. Capitulations
(foreign privileges) were abolished. The Gregorian calendar was substituted
for the Islamic, and the feast of the Ramazan was fixed by astronomical
observation. In every direction Islamic precedence and prohibitions
were broken and violated.
Changed the Old Order
He started with Angora as an unkempt little Anatolian village with narrow streets and mud-brick houses, where the only big event was a weekly market for the peasants.
According to a German architectural plan by Herman Jansen, the new capital was laid out in detached sections over an immense site. From a central citadel, broad paved avenues radiated, imperiously breaking the natural lines of a hilly plain.
These avenues were lined with handsome edifices in broad arches and tilesschools, lyceums, hospitals, dwellings, factories, laboratories. Automobile traffic moves swiftly in Angora, where camel caravans used to plod within the memory of many of the inhabitants. The streets are lighted by electricity. A telephone exchange and a powerful wireless station were in operation in Angora by 1925.
A typical act in the Ghazis endeavor to reform the country was the changing of the name of Constantinople to the old Turkish title Istanbul. This removed a historic reminder of the days when Occidentals ruled on the Bosporus. It served also to bolster Turkish nationalistic feeling.
After the Ottoman dynasty, which for six centuries had been in power in the empire, had became mere history, Article II of the constitution of the Turkish Republic declared that The religion of the Turkish State is Islam. This article had to be removed as the final step in Ataturks endeavor to separate the church from the State. In 1928 the National Assembly struck out the article and provided that government servants should no longer swear by Allah in taking the oath of office, but should simply swear on their honor. Finally, an official translation of the Koran was made.
The President married in January in 1923, Latife Hanim, daughter of a wealthy Turkish merchant of Smyrna. It was reported that his bride brought him a dowry of 1,000,000Turkish lire. The Ghazi divorced his wife in 1925 by the simple old procedure of saying in the presence of witnesses, I divorce you.